Очередной псевдонаучный мусор.
Data Collection


The work presented herein is an ecologic study of cancer mortality rates in the U.S. with respect to solar UV-B exposure. The cancer mortality data were taken from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality,1 in which age-adjusted rates for white and black Americans separated by gender are given by county (n = 3053) and state economic area (SEA) (n = 506) for the periods 1950–1969 and 1970–1994. SEAs are individual counties or groups of counties that are relatively homogeneous with respect to various demographic, economic, and cultural factors. The original cancer data were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics, whereas population estimates were obtained from the Census Bureau. The SEA data for the period 1970–1994 were used in the current study, although the 1950–1969 data showed similar geographic distributions.


Two solar UV-B indices and data sets were used in the current study. The primary data set used for the current analysis was the DNA-weighted UV-B radiation exposure map obtained by using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS).20, 21 TOMS is a space-based instrument that yields UV data for the entire country with a 1-degree × 1.25-degree grid spacing. The July 1992 TOMS data, posted at the TOMS website, was used.20 The color images were digitized to yield average values for each SEA or population center within the SEAs, including major urban areas. The color contour interval was 0.75 kilojoule (kJ)/m2, with a noontime average range in the U.S. of 3.4–10 kJ/m2. The location of the SEA can be determined to approximately 33–50% of a contour or approximately 0.3–0.4 kJ/m2. This represents approximately 10% of the dose at the lower exposures and 4% at the higher exposures. However, the TOMS estimate of UV-B radiation apparently underestimates the reduction due to aerosols,22 which is a very important consideration in the northeastern U.S.


In addition to the TOMS data, UV-B data obtained from ground-based UV-B monitoring stations operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) also were used.23, 24 This network has 26 stations in rural locations in the U.S., 24 of which were in operation by 1999. The UV-B data were determined as follows: 1) the earliest year on or after 1997 for which July data were available was found; 2) a week's worth of data were obtained from the website in graphic form; 3) the value for that week was the highest midday value that was unaffected by clouds; and 4) the mean value for the 4 weeks was determined. If clouds affected the data for the entire week, the corresponding week of the next year was used instead. This approach emphasizes the contributions of solar zenith angle, station elevation, ozone, and typical aerosol loading of the atmosphere. The relative uncertainty of each determination was estimated to be < 0.1. From the 24 stations, 9 stations were identified that when removed, resulted in an increase in the regression coefficient (r) for male colon carcinoma in July. The stations removed often were in coastal or border regions where they could have been subjected to influences such as clouds or recent immigration. The remaining 15 stations were used in analyses for July and early September.


И итог:
Bladder M −0.57 9.5 4.00 6.56 6290 800 (690–900)
F −0.40 9.0 1.43 1.87 2830 100 (80–120)
Breast F −0.67 9.3 19.7 26.9 33,500 4000 (3660–4180)
Colon M −0.62 9.4 13.9 20.1 19,400 2370 (2140–2600)
F −0.63 9.8 10.2 15.0 21,200 2630 (2370–2910)
Esophagus M −0.54 9.6 3.20 4.80 4660 470 (400–530)
Kidney M −0.29 10.0 4.37 4.90 4480 45 (30–60)
F −0.37 9.4 1.91 2.24 2960 70 (50–90)
NHL M −0.41 10.0 5.86 7.03 6850 200 (160–240)
F −0.38 10.0 4.03 4.76 6410 160 (120–190)
Ovary F −0.63 9.4 6.33 8.38 10,500 1010 (890–1110)
Prostate M −0.32 10.0 20.4 22.0 20,900 170 (120–220)
Rectuma M −0.69 9.4 2.37 4.40 4250 960 (750–1160)
Rectum F −0.63 8.2 1.24 2.54 3570 740 (660–800)
Stomacha M −0.57 7.2 5.71 7.33 7090 510 (590–550)
F −0.48 6.7 2.47 3.41 4830 240 (210–260)
Uterus (corpus) F −0.58 9.4 2.57 3.72 5000 550 (490–610)
Total, males 69,400 5530 (4880–6260)
Total, females 87,800 9500 (8530–10,270)
Total, males and females 157,000 15,030 (13,410–16,530)

Впрочем, человек все понимает, weasel words на месте: . Because this is a hypothesis article, it is hoped that the current study will form the basis for further investigations using case–control or cohort approaches -- т.е., дайте бабла.